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London: Methuen. Cooprider K. Racial classification based on non-metric skeletal traits. Homo, 1— Corruccini R. An examination of the meaning of cranial discrete traits for human skeletal biological studies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, — Day M. Finnegan M. Bibliography of human and nonhuman non-metric variation.

Department of Anthropology, Research Reports No. Classification system for discrete variables used in forensic anthropology. Gamble C. Information exchange in the Paleolithic. Nature, — Interaction and alliance in Paleolithic society.

Man, 92— Gendel P. Mesolithic Social Territories in Northwestern Europe. Gray H. Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger.

Key to Northwest European Origins - Introduction:

Larsson L. The Skateholm project. Papers of the Archaeological Institute, University of Lund, 5: 1— Leakey R.

New hominid fossils from the Koobi Fora formation in Northern Kenya. Lumleyde M-A. McCown T. The Stone Age of Mount Carmel. Volume III. Oxford: Clarendon. Mellars P. Settlement patterns and industrial variability in the British Mesolithic. In: Sieveking G. Problems in Economic and Social Archeology.

London, Duckworth. Newell R. The post-glacial adaptations of the indigenous population of the Northwest European plain. In: Kozowski S. The Mesolithic in Europe. Warsaw University Press. On the Mesolithic contribution to the social evolution of Western European society. In: Bintliff J. European Social Evolution: Archaeological Perspectives.

Bradford, University of Bradford Press. Ossenberg N. Within and between race distances in population studies based on discrete traits of the human skull.

Paris, Maison et Cie. Persson O. Phenice T. Is it a witness to genuine pagan beliefs or is it simply a Christian's interpretation of paganism? Anon, If we're talking about the hunter-fisher-gatherers of the North Sea and Baltic, a number of cemeteries have been found but the burials in them seem to be individual, with people being buried in very different ways. Mikke, The Finns are a clear example of population continuity, since they adopted agriculture within historic times.

Raymond McNair

Yet according to the mtDNA data, they seem to have been largely replaced. Anon, The Sami are reindeer herders with a simple kin-based mode of social organization. The Baltic peoples lie to the west of the Hajnal Line and thus exhibit the Western European Marriage Pattern, which seems to be associated with behavioral modernity. Sean, I believe that guilt evolved out of shame along a trajectory of increasing internalization.

In the initial phases of this trajectory, people believed that spirits were watching their shameful acts. Then, further along, this internal watchdog became merged with the self, i. I need to read up more on ancient fishing of the North Sea and the Baltic. To what degree was fishing a high-trust activity that encompassed large numbers of unrelated individuals? The Sami are reindeer herders with a simple kin-based mode of social organization. Right, but your argument here is that the Mesolithics are associated with behavioral modernity.

The Sami and the Baltic peoples have the highest amount of Mesolithic ancestry and they've been relatively backward. If we're talking about the hunter-fisher-gatherers of the North Sea and Baltic, a number of cemeteries have been found but the burials in them seem to be individual, with people being buried in very different ways. The traditional view is that individualism and greater cultural and commercial sophistication was introduced into Northern Europe by the Indo-Europeans. Do you dispute this characterization?

Do you think the influence was in the opposite direction - from the mesolithics to the Indo-Europeans, rather than the traditional view? Bollongino et al found there were 'hunter gatherers' in Neolithic Germany with a "freshwater fish diet, The west european Mesolithic techniques for exploitation of fish resources must have been extremely advanced if they were competitive with farming communities living right beside them for years, as Bollongino found.

One must presume there was a lot of co-operation. For the origin of these efficient processing techniques I suspect Doggerland. It was likely the richest fresh water fishing ground in Europe.

KEY TO NORTHWEST EUROPEAN ORIGINS

So a lot of people depending on fish, and when Doggerland began to decline, that would create the pressure for methods for more efficient processing of marine food. They moved around on giant dug out canoes, one 30 feet long has been found. From what I have read about Inuit whaling, their boats are crewed only with those they totally trust.

The Doggerlanders went to what is now England and Holland, which were the first commerial nations. Low digit ration is associated with competitiveness and lack of empathy. High digit ratio is associated with co-operation and altruism. England, Holland Germany, Poland have very high digit ratios.

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Denmark has the highest in the world, and that was where the burials Melchior et al studied were. Doggerland disappeared by around 6, BC. R1b is the most common y-chromosome haplogroup in England and the Netherlands. It's believed to have been introduced by Indo-European speakers long after Doggerland disappeared.

The northern Italian city-states were commercial states before the rise of the English and Dutch commercial empires. R1b is also the most haplogroup of northern Italy. One to three men fathered most western Europeans?