This study-unit is delivered through lectures and practical sessions in groups, pairs and workshops. The main objective is to lay a foundation of general Music Teaching and of Musical taste as would enable the student teacher to enjoy his music teaching with an intelligent and discriminating interest.
By the end of the Physical Education coursework students will be able to: - Demonstrate abilities in compiling age appropriate physical challenges to primary pupils across the primary educational stream through the preparation of physical Education lesson plans and analysis of the primary syllabus; - Demonstrate ability in analysing progressions needed to teach Athletic competency, gymnastics skills, educational dance and the initial steps towards buoyancy and swimming through practical sessions and workshops; - Analyse the physical competencies needed to be developed through Long Term Athlete Development lectures and practical workshops; - Prepare Physical Education lesson plans and Schemes of Work through assigned work; - Analyse basic teaching competencies and needs in Physical Education through micro teaching sessions; - Explain the necessity of getting pupils at primary level motivated towards movement and active lifestyles through lecture discussions.
Teaching Primary Physical Education, , Sage. Music - Pratt G. Integrating Music in the elementary classroom. Music 7 - 11 Developing Primary Teaching Skills. Coincident with these changes in body proportions, and in part because of them, the capacity to perform various motor tasks develops in a predictable fashion. For example, running speed increases are consistent with the increase in leg length.
Neurological development also determines skill progression. Young children, for example, when thrown a ball, catch it within the midline of the body and do not attempt to catch it outside the midline or to either side of the body. As proximodistal development proceeds, children are better able to perform tasks outside their midline, and by adolescence they are able to maneuver their bodies in a coordinated way to catch objects outside the midline with little effort.
Physically active and inactive children progress through identical stages.
Providing opportunities for young children to be physically active is important not to affect the stages but to ensure adequate opportunity for skill development. Sound physical education curricula are based on an understanding of growth patterns and developmental stages and are critical to provide appropriate movement experiences that promote motor skill development Clark, The mastery of fundamental motor skills is strongly related to physical activity in children and adolescents Lubans et al. Mastering fundamental motor skills also is critical to fostering physical activity because these skills serve as the foundation for more advanced and sport-specific movement Clark and Metcalfe, ; Hands et al.
Physical activity programs, such as physical education, should be based on developmentally appropriate motor activities to foster self-efficacy and enjoyment and encourage ongoing participation in physical activity. Maturation is the process of attaining the fully adult state.
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In growth studies, maturity is typically assessed as skeletal, somatic, or sexual. The same hormones regulate skeletal, somatic, and sexual maturation during adolescence, so it is reasonable to expect the effect of physical activity on these indicators of maturity to be similar. Skeletal maturity is typically assessed from radiographs of the bones in the hand and wrist; it is not influenced by habitual physical activity. Similarly, age at peak height velocity the most rapid change in height , an indicator of somatic maturity, is not affected by physical activity, nor is the magnitude of peak height velocity, which is well within the usual range in both active and inactive youth.
Discussions of the effects of physical activity on sexual maturation more often focus on females than males and, in particular, on age at menarche first menses. While some data suggest an association between later menarche and habitual physical activity Merzenich et al. While menarche occurs later in females who participate in some sports, the available data do not support a causal relationship between habitual physical activity and later menarche. Puberty is the developmental period that represents the beginning of sexual maturation.
It is marked by the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and their underlying hormonal changes, with accompanying sex differences in linear growth and body mass and composition.
Recent research suggests that the onset of puberty is occurring earlier in girls today compared with the previous generation, and there is speculation that increased adiposity may be a cause Bau et al. Conversely, some data suggest that excess adiposity in boys contributes to delayed sexual maturation Lee et al. Pubescence, the earliest period of adolescence, generally occurs about 2 years in advance of sexual maturity. Typically, individuals are in the secondary school years during this period, which is a time of decline in habitual physical activity, especially in girls.
Physical activity trends are influenced by the development of secondary sex characteristics and other physical changes that occur during the adolescent growth spurt, as well as by societal and cultural factors. Research suggests that physical inactivity during adolescence carries over into adulthood Malina, a , b ; CDC, It is critical that adolescents be offered appropriate physical activity programs that take into account the physical and sociocultural changes they are experiencing so they will be inspired to engage in physical activity for a lifetime.
As discussed below, adequate physical activity during puberty may be especially important for optimal bone development and prevention of excess adiposity, as puberty is a critical developmental period for both the skeleton and the adipose organ. Adolescence is the transitional period between childhood and adulthood.
The adolescent growth spurt, roughly 3 years of rapid growth, occurs early in this period.
An accelerated increase in stature is a hallmark, with about 20 percent of adult stature being attained during this period. Along with the rapid increase in height, other changes in body proportions occur that have important implications for sports and other types of activities offered in physical education and physical activity programs. As boys and girls advance through puberty, for example, biacromial breadth shoulder width increases more in boys than in girls, while increases in bicristal breadth hip width are quite similar.
Consequently, hip-shoulder width ratio, which is similar in boys and girls during childhood, decreases in adolescent boys while remaining relatively constant in girls Malina et al. Ratios among leg length, trunk length, and stature also change during this period. Prior to adolescence, boys have longer trunks and shorter legs than girls Haubenstricker and Sapp, In contrast, adolescent and adult females have shorter legs for the same height than males of equal stature.
Body proportions, particularly skeletal dimensions, are unlikely to be influenced by physical activity; rather, body proportions influence performance success, fitness evaluation, and the types of activities in which a person may wish to engage. For example, there is evidence that leg length influences upright balance and speed Haubenstricker and Sapp, Individuals who have shorter legs and broader pelvises are better at balancing tasks than those with longer legs and narrower pelvises, and longer legs are associated with faster running times Dintiman et al.
Also, longer arms and wider shoulders are advantageous in throwing tasks Haubenstricker and Sapp, , as well as in other activities in which the arms are used as levers. According to Haubenstricker and Sapp , approximately 25 percent of engagement in movement-related activities can be attributed to body size and structure. Motor development depends on the interaction of experience e. Early movements, critical for an infant's survival, are reflexive and dominated by biology, although environment contributes and helps shape reflexes. This initial reflexive period is followed quickly by the preadapted period , which begins when an infant's movement behaviors are no longer reflexive and ends when the infant begins to apply basic movement skills e.
The period of fundamental motor patterns occurs approximately between the ages of 1 and 7 years, when children begin to acquire basic fundamental movement skills e. Practice and instruction are key to learning these skills, and a great deal of time in elementary school physical education is devoted to exploration of movement. Around age 7, during the so-called context-specific period of motor development, children begin to refine basic motor skills and combine them into more specific movement patterns, ultimately reaching what has been called skillfulness.
Compensation , the final period of motor development, occurs at varying points across the life span when, as a result of aging, disease, injury, or other changes, it becomes necessary to modify movement. A full movement repertoire is needed to engage in physical activities within and outside of the school setting. Thus, beyond contributing to levels of physical activity, physical education programs should aim to teach basic fundamental motor skills and their application to games, sports, and other physical activities, especially during the elementary years i.
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At the same time, it is important to be mindful of the wide interindividual variation in the rate at which children develop motor skills, which is determined by their biological makeup, their rate of physical maturation, the extent and quality of their movement experiences, and their family and community environment.
An increasing amount of evidence suggests that people who feel competent in performing physical skills remain more active throughout their lives Lubans et al. Conversely, those who are less skilled may be hesitant to display what they perceive as a shortcoming and so may opt out of activities requiring higher levels of motor competence Stodden et al. Children who are less physically skillful tend to be less active than their skillful counterparts Wrotniak et al.
Fundamental skills are the building blocks of more complex actions that are completed in sports, physical activities, and exercise settings.
For example, throwing is a fundamental skill that is incorporated into the context-specific throw used in activities such as handball, softball, and water polo. Fundamental skills are of primary interest to both physical education teachers and coaches, and physical education classes should be designed to challenge learners to develop their motor skills. The workshop convened 21 experts from a wide range of academic disciplines. One recommendation resulting from the proceedings was for future research to describe the temporal relationship between motor development and physical activity Fulton et al.
The assumption of this relationship is implied in multiple models of motor development Seefeldt, ; Clark and Metcalfe, ; Stodden et al. Two models that are commonly used to examine this relationship are Seefeldt's hierarchical order of motor skills development and the dynamic association model of Stodden and colleagues Seefeldt proposed a hierarchical order of motor skills development that includes four levels: reflexes, fundamental motor skills, transitional motor skills i.
With improved transitional motor skills, children are able to master complex motor skills e. At the end of this developmental period, children's vision is fully mature. The progression through each level occurs through developmental stages as a combined result of growth, maturation, and experience. If children are able to achieve a level of competence above the proficiency barrier, they are more likely to continue to engage in physical activity throughout the life span that requires the use of fundamental motor skills. Conversely, less skilled children who do not exceed the proficiency barrier will be less likely to continue to engage in physical activity.
For example, to engage successfully in a game of handball, baseball, cricket, or basketball at any age, it is important to reach a minimum level of competence in running, throwing, catching, and striking. A thorough understanding of how this relationship changes across developmental stages is crucial for curriculum development and delivery and teaching practices.
Lubans and colleagues recently examined the relationship between motor competence and health outcomes. They reviewed 21 studies identifying relationships between fundamental motor skills and self-worth, perceived physical competence, muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness, weight status, flexibility, physical activity, and sedentary behavior.